Cancer is not a single disease, but it is a cellular response that can happen in various tissues at a particular stage of many diseases. There are few infections like Helico-bacterium Pilorie, if left untreated may lead to Stomach cancer. Human Pappiloma Virus infection of cervix of Uterus can lead to Cervical cancer. Hepatitis -B will progress to Hepato-cellular Carcinoma. Hormonal imbalances can also lead to Cancer. Estrogen sensitive Breast cancers and Testosterone sensitive prostrate cancers are examples of it. Lately research shows that there is a genetic basis for cancer pathology, and mutation to tumor suppressor genes is the source of pathology. Exposure to toxins like pesticides, viral infections or radiation are factors which can cause these genetic mutations.

However Ayurveda has explained a cellular pathology called Arbudam which can be compared to tumor. There are both benign tumors and malignant tumors. There are seven types of Arbuda. Out of which Rakta and Mamsa are malignant in nature. Ayurveda has also mentioned the metastatic tendency of Arbuda by explaining Dvirarbuda (secondary tumor). Ancient treatises has also explained the possibility of relapse after excision by explaining the possibility of Adhyarbuda (tumor at the site of surgery).

Only when a neoplasm is visible Ayurveda called it as Arbuda. Tumors which are deep seated either in abdominal cavity or thoracic cavity are not called as Arbuda. Such example are Gulma, Yakritdalyudara, These can be compared to intestinal tumors and hepatic tumors respectivley. Non solid types of cancers are also included under various other pathologies. For example Leukemia is included under a pathology of blood called Pandu in Ayurveda. Ulcerus forms of carcinoma is mostly included under Pitta pathologies of the curresponding system in Ayurveda.